1. Combine anchovies, black pepper, and olive oil in a blender. Puree about 5 minute until very smooth. Measure and reserve one-third cup for use with croutons.
2. Bring a small saucepan of water to a boil. Place a refrigerated egg on a slotted spoon and into boiling water. Cook 1 1/2 minutes, remove and reserve.
3. Place remaining dressing ingredients in a large bowl and whisk in anchovy mixture. Crack open egg and spoon (including the parts that are uncooked) into mixture. Whisk until well combined. The dressing may be refrigerated at this stage.
4. Combine reserved anchovy mixture with diced bread in a bowl and toss to coat. Heat a dry cast-iron skillet over medium-high and cook croutons, stirring constantly, until golden and crisp.
5. Wash and dry lettuce and break into bite-sized pieces. Place in a salad bowl along with dressing and grated Parmesan cheese and toss well. Add toasted croutons, toss again, and serve.